Vaccines in Italy: what are they, age groups, characteristics. The directives of Aifa and Ema

Vaccines in Italy: what are they, age groups, characteristics. The directives of Aifa and Ema
Vaccines in Italy: what are they, age groups, characteristics. The directives of Aifa and Ema

Which and how many anti Covid vaccines are authorized in Italy? What are the principles of the serums? How do they work, to whom are they recommended and to whom will they be administered? We try to do some order after the recent news (following the new cases of death from cerebral thrombosis of an 18 year old in Liguria) related to the administration of AstraZeneca only for those over 60 and, for those who received the first dose of AstraZeneca vaccine, the administration of the second with a different vaccine, a serum mRna.

There are currently four vaccines that have already obtained authorizations for use from the European Medicines Agency Ema and the Italian drug agency Aifa: the vaccine Vaxzevria di AstraZeneca, the vaccine Modern, the vaccine Comirnaty di Pfizer-BioNTech and the vaccine Janssen  della Johnson & Johnson.

The vaccines Commonwealth and Modern use the Rna messenger technology (mRNA), mean Vaxzevria e Janssen are based on the use of the platform a viral vectors. To date, only the vaccine Cominarty (Pfizer) has also been approved for use on minors, that is in adolescents aged 12 to 15 years.

AstreZeneca

Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca): the latest circular of the ministry of health of ‘updated the opinion of the cts on vaccines indicates that the vaccine vaxzevria “is administered only to people aged 60 years or older” (complete course of vaccination, ie first and second dose) . for people who have received the first dose of this vaccine and are under 60 years of age, it is the ministry’s indication, “the course must be completed with a second dose of vaccine in mrna (comirnaty or modern), from administer 8-12 weeks after the first dose “. this vaccine is based on viral vector technology: a virus similar to sarscov2 but not aggressive (a chimpanzee adenovirus) is used to which genetic information is added that alert the body’s immune response. in this case, the adenovirus carries the sarscov2 spike protein, which is the molecular claw used by the virus to latch onto healthy cells and invade them. 2 doses scheduled at 8-12 weeks.

J&J

janssen (johnson & johnson): is a single-dose vaccine and is recommended for people over 60 years of age. “If specific situations arise in which the advantageous conditions of the single administration are evident and in the absence of other options – the technical scientific committee specified – the janssen vaccine should preferentially be used, subject to the opinion of the territorially competent ethics committee”. like that of astrazeneca is a viral vector vaccine, composed of a recombinant vector based on human adenovirus type 26 that is incompetent for replication, suitably modified to contain the virus spike protein gene.

Pfizer

Comirnaty (Pfizer-Biontech): it is authorized for persons aged 16 and above, and more recently it has been authorized by ema and aifa also for adolescents from 12 to 15 years. provides two doses and uses an innovative technology, that of the messenger rna. this technique consists in using the sequence of the genetic material of the new coronavirus, namely ribonucleic acid (rna), which represents the molecular messenger that contains the instructions for building the proteins of the virus. the goal is to directly administer the mrna that controls the production of a protein against which the immune system reacts. in this case the protein is the spike.

Modern

The vaccine created by the American Moderana is authorized for persons aged 18 and over and also uses the a Rna messenger. last 7 June the Moderna company has also asked EMA for authorization for use by adolescents aged 12 to 18 for its anti-Covid vaccine.

X-ray vaccination campaign

Yesterday there were 40,719,560 doses of vaccine against Covid administered in Italy, 89.9% of those delivered, equal to 45,284,269 doses. In detail, they have been distributed 30,633,232 doses of Pfizer / BioNTech serum, 8,993,570 of those of Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca), 4,097,767 of those of Moderna and 1,559,700 of those of Janssen. At the regional level, the Lombardy is the most virtuous region recording 92.4% of the ratio between administered doses and delivered doses. The Marche (92%) and Abruzzo (91.7%) follow. At the bottom of the ‘ranking’ we find Sardinia (84%), then Calabria (86.8%) and Sicily (87.2%). The administrations were carried out in the 2,673 main points throughout Italy. People who have completed the vaccination cycle I’m 13,713,224, 25.28% of the population over 12.

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