the history of hepatitis, poliomyelitis and measles

the history of hepatitis, poliomyelitis and measles
the history of hepatitis, poliomyelitis and measles

AstraZeneca and Pfizer or Moderna. The mix works. Less risks, more efficacy and greater protection against variants. The “cocktail” of vaccines can reassure even the undecided. So much so that even Prime Minister Mario Draghi has chosen heterologous vaccination. “Funziona – the prime minister said yesterday at a press conference -, I’m booked on Tuesday». Draghi also specified that the first dose with Astrazeneca «Gave a low answer»And then the doctors advised him to do the second dose with a messenger RNA vaccine: then Pfizer or Moderna.

AstraZeneca, anyone who refuses the mix will be able to receive the second dose (with doctor’s consent). Johnson & Johnson only for over 60s

Vaccine mix: when using the mix

By vaccine mix we mean using a viral vector vaccine for the first dose (at this time only Astrazeneca, because Johnson & Johnson is single-dose) and a messenger RNA (Pfizer or Moderna) as the second injection. Heterologous vaccination is nothing new. And it has also been used in the past. Usually the mix is ​​used when the doses of the first drug are exhausted, when a serious side effect has occurred (such as the rare cases of thrombosis for Astrazeneca) or also, as in this case, to obtain a stronger immune response.

Previous cases: hepatitis, poliomyelitis and measles

This is not the first time a mix of vaccines has been used. Different types of drugs have been injected for hepatitis, polio and measles, mumps and rubella. Three combination vaccines for hepatitis A and B are commercially available in various countries: a two-dose pediatric formulation and a three-dose adult or pediatric formulation.

Vaccines, Dragons: effective and recommended heterologous, but freedom of choice

Side effect of the polio vaccine

In the nineties there was a case similar to that which happened for Astrazeneca. A rare but serious side effect was identified for an oral polio vaccine. It is the incident known as the Cutter. The vaccine was Salk, produced by the pharmaceutical companies Eli Lilly, Parke-Davis, Wyeth, Pitman Moore, Cutter which had been licensed for production. But there was a problem. It is also serious. On April 26, just two weeks after the vaccine was distributed, the director of the Laboratory of Biologic Control, William Workman, was notified that five children in California had been paralyzed after receiving the Salk polio vaccine. After that case, the Division of Biological Standards was formed in the United States in 1954 to oversee the safety and regulation of vaccines. Subsequently, the DBS was renamed the Bureau of Biologics and became part of the Food and Drug Administration. It is now known as the Center for Biological Evaluation and Research.

Mario Draghi: “Heterologous vaccination works”

Effectiveness of the AstraZeneca and Moderna or Pfizer mix

The most recent Spanish study on heterologous vaccination is the one conducted by CombiVacS in Spain. Where 663 people who received AstraZeneca for the first dose were enrolled. The results indicated that the second dose of Pfizer increases antibodies in people who received AstraZeneca as their first dose. A German study involving 340 healthcare professionals also showed how the AstraZeneca-Pfizer combination provides a similar immune response against many of the variants compared to 2 doses of Pfizer. These results would likely be the same or similar if Dose 2 had been Modern.

Saturday 19 June 2021, 11:09 – Last updated: 13:03

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