Tuesday 2 June is celebrated as usual Republic Day, one of the most important civil events in our country. His own story it is linked to the referendum that 75 years ago decreed the passage from the monarchical to the republican system, in an Italy that had recently emerged from the Second World War.
2 June: Mattarella at the Altare della Patria
The referendum: republic or monarchy?
On 2 and 3 June 1946 the Italian people were invited by a referendum to decide which institutional form give to the state after the end of fascism. On the one hand, the monarchy, represented by the Savoy coat of arms; on the other, the republic, personified by the turreted effigy. For the first time they went to vote on a national scale all citizens and towns who had reached the age of majority (at the time 21 years old); this thanks to the introduction of universal suffrage, which took place in 1945, which had also recognized the right to vote for women.
The Italian Republic is born
As we well know, the ballot boxes they decreed the victory of the republic. The votes in favor were 12.718.641, against 10.718.502 preferences expressed for the monarchy (the null or blank ballots were instead 1,498,136). The results of the referendum were communicated by the Court of Cassation on 10 June 1946, although it was formally necessary to wait until 18 June to have a final judgment on the complaints and disputes of the monarchists. The birth of the Italian Republic put an end to the Kingdom of Italy, with the consequent cessation of the powers exercised until then by the royal family of Savoy
The popular consultation of June 2 also served for elect the deputies of the Constituent Assembly, the legislative body which was responsible for drafting the new Constitution. In light of the result of the institutional referendum, on June 28, 1946 the Constituent Assembly also appointed the provisional head of state: the choice Cadde his Enrico De Nicola, who became the first president of the newly formed Italian Republic. The first prime minister it was instead Alcide De Gasperi, the founder of the Christian Democrats, who got the job from De Nicola. As for the new Constitution, it entered into force on January 1, 1948.
The history of the Republic Day
The first Republic Day was held on June 2, 1947, exactly one year after the historic referendum, while in 1948 the first parade of the Armed Forces took place in via dei Fori Imperiali, in Rome. In 1949 June 2 was definitively declared a national holiday; however, in 1977, following the economic crisis that was spreading in those years, the Republic Day it was moved to the first Sunday in June, so you don’t miss a working day. In 2001, at the behest of the then President of the Republic Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, the celebration eventually returned to its original location on June 2, resuming the status of a holiday.
Republic Day 2021: the program
On the morning of June 2, on the occasion of 75th anniversary of the Italian Republic, President Sergio Mattarella as per tradition he will lay a laurel wreath itslia Tomba del unknown soldiersor, at the Altare della Patria. On the other hand, neither the military parade, nor (as far as is known to date) the exhibition of the Frecce Tricolori. In the evening, at 7 pm, the official ceremony for the National Republic Day will be held at the Quirinale Palace.
Republic Day 2021, Mattarella: “Democracy growth never stopped”
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