Who is healed (naturally) from Covid 19 and who has been vaccinated can have an immunity that also lasts a lifetime without the need for further vaccinations? It is a question that we all ask ourselves listening to announcements that speak of the third dose, but it is a question that some scientists have asked themselves well before us, reaching conclusions that perhaps too little has been said and that we would like to bring to your attention here.
“We currently don’t know the exact amount of neutralizing antibodies and T cells needed to establish protection from infection. Overall though, all of the reported studies represent robust evidence that Sars-CoV-2 infection or vaccination triggers an immune response that develops on several fronts. Therefore, if these data are further confirmed, the fears of a pandemic destined to last years, with seasonal relapses, and the need for annual vaccine boosters, would be canceled thanks to lasting immunity against the virus“. This concludes a report by the Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, published on the Institute’s website on 7 July 2021 entitled “Covid-19 and immunity: how long can the protection last?“. The text incorporates some important studies and in particular a research that appeared on Nature on May 24, 2021.
You read that right. There is talk of “lasting immunity against the virus”. But how did we arrive at this conclusion that we don’t seem to be taking into account? The speech is obviously very complex. But let’s try to summarize, as far as possible, the discourse, using the words of the Italian researchers of the Institute. “What we do know is that, following primary infection, over 90% of patients develop a positivity for antibodies against Sars-CoV-2, even those so-called neutralizers that have, that is, the ability to block the virus even before this infects our cells. Nonetheless, several studies have found quite consistently that neutralizing antibodies tend to decrease in the first months after infection. The rate of decrease in antibodies is very variable between 6 and 10 months and this would seem to depend on two factors: severity of the disease (the more severe the disease, the higher and more long-lasting the levels of antibodies and individual factors at the level of the individual patient “.
This speech is known to us, these are the things we usually hear on TV, but let’s proceed with the rest of the reasoning: “Although the duration of immunity remains mostly unknown, we know that people who have fallen ill with Covid-19 present a lower risk of reinfection than those who have never come into contact with Sars-CoV-2. Indeed, several studies have estimated that previously positive people have a slightly less than 1% risk of contracting the disease again“. Here is an interesting fact that could also explain why infections are decreasing, beyond the vaccination campaign: the greater the number of people who have become infected since January 2020, the less likely they will be infected again. But that is not all.
«During the infection caused by a new virus, our organism is able to recognize the” foreign “agent and eliminate it through two different compartments of the immune system: the immune response defined as ‘innate’ and one defined as ‘adaptive’. The innate system represents the first line of defense, the most ancient and primitive one, which allows the organism to respond in a generalized and non-specific way to a new pathogen … Following the innate response, the adaptive response comes into play, a relatively more slow in response, but able to specialize to a greater extent and attack the new pathogen in a highly specific way. This second system is based on the activation of B and T lymphocytes, capable of recognizing in a very targeted way some parts of the structure of the new pathogen ».
In the report, the researchers explain how the immune system works and then state: “The peculiarity of the adaptive immune system is that it has an immunological memory, that is, there are particular types of B and T cells, called precisely memory cells, which are able to nest inside our bone marrow and remain in a sort of hibernation (defined as a state of retirement). In reality these are always ready to wake up and perform their functions should the same pathogen, towards which they are programmed, should reinfect our organism ».
And here is where Jackson Turner’s team study, published in Nature, which answers the fundamental question: our body is able to respond to subsequent ones attacks by Sars-CoV-2 even in the absence of measurable levels of antibodies, developed following Covid-19? After a detailed analysis of the duration of antibodies over time, here is a statement that would be worth reflecting on: «By a more in-depth analysis of memory B cells, the researchers showed that these were actually” quiescent “: they were not they multiplied more and did not produce many antibodies, but they were ready to wake up in time of need … The hope is that, as is the case with the immune memory for these vaccines, the duration of B cells against Sars-CoV-2 may also be stable for decades or even for a lifetime “. This statement is really comforting, but what if they were wrong? It seems that the risk of a mistake is rather unlikely. The development and persistence of long-lasting memory B cells in the bone marrow is confirmed by an Australian study that appeared in Science Immunology [nota 3].
Basically, as the report on the Italian Institute website summarizes: “What appears evident from these two important works is that the mechanism underlying the immune response involves a first canonical response conducted by B cells with transient production of antibodies in the initial stages of the disease, which then diminish quite rapidly. At this stage they follow more stable levels of antibodies, supported by long-lasting memory B cells which take refuge in the bone marrow long after the primary infection. The latter offer a lasting source of protective antibodies, necessary to maintain immune protection over time ». Quoting a Swedish study by Karolinska University Hospital, it is added: “The most interesting aspect is that patients with severe Covid-19 developed both a strong antibody response than an orchestrated response by T lymphocytes; while those with milder symptoms did not always develop an antibody response. Despite this, most of these asymptomatic people showed a marked T-cell response. Furthermore, it was not only individuals with confirmed Covid-19 who showed T-cell immunity, but also many of their exposed family members who remained asymptomatic. , suggesting that the T cell response alone may confer protection even without developing antibodies. ‘
To follow, another illuminating passage: “These differences could explain why some people, despite being infected with the virus, do not develop B cells and therefore measurable antibodies in the blood, but they quickly fight infection through a T-cell-driven response».
Then there are the studies already done years ago on Sars. Some people who had contracted Sars caused by Sars-CoV in 2003. 17 years later, show an immune response to the virus based on T cells, and this also bodes well for Sars-CoV-2. But that’s not all yet. The Italian researchers write: «The most significant discovery, however, emerged from three independent works that reached the same conclusion. Even in about 30-40% of people who never came into contact with SARS-CoV-2, there were T cells capable of recognizing and eliminating the virus. How is it possible that people who have never been exposed to the virus have specific T cells in their bodies capable of responding to it? Scientists have discovered that there are T cells that are able to recognize different viruses that have common structural characteristics (in technical term ‘cross-reactive’) and that are capable of reacting to multiple viruses at the same time. Specifically, in these studies they showed that subjects who had encountered the most common seasonal cold coronaviruses had T cells capable of recognizing and eliminating Sars-CoV-2 as well. Based on their results, therefore, the researchers hypothesize that a pre-existing exposure to cold viruses may contribute to variations in the severity of the disease in patients who contract Covid-19 ».
Great. All clear and encouraging, but for months we have been hearing about the dangerous variants capable of “piercing” even the vaccine. What to do then? Proceed with subsequent doses of the vaccine modulated on the variants? The answer is certainly not up to us, but in this regard here is another statement present in the concluding part of the text written by the Italian Institute: “With the aim of identifying the ability of T cells to neutralize all variants of Sars-CoV- 2, the research team led by Andrew Redd of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine analyzed the blood of 30 people who had contracted Covid-19 at the beginning of the pandemic, when none of the variants had yet been generated. With great amazement and a hint of optimism, the researchers were able to show that the T cell response had remained virtually intact against the different variants. This would allow us to maintain efficient long-term immunity even in the unfortunate case in which some variants, as it would seem to be for the Beta and Gamma variants, acquire partial resistance to the antibodies generated during infection with the original Sars-CoV-2. not changed “.
Anyone who has come to the end of this long article of mine will have understood that the issue is very complex and would be very difficult to deal with in a televised debate. The hope, however, is that television experts will read the studies we have cited and consider the catastrophic impact that any errors in assessment could have on everyone’s present and future health.