Less employed and less paid despite being more educated and having higher grades than male colleagues, even in the STEM disciplines from which, however, they exclude themselves because they are victims of stereotypes. We have analyzed the data of the most important Italian, European and world observers (also because the data from Italy have been judged “not very transparent” by the EU) and this is the state of the art in Italy, Anno Domini 2020.
Compared to a male colleague, in Italy a woman receives on average a month and a half less while doing the same hours of work. Fifth goal to be achieved by 2030 for Sustainable Development promoted by the UN and pursued by the European Union in the five-year period 2016-2019 then renewed for 2020-2025, gender equality in Italy remains a mirage, especially in work.
We crossed the data of two important observers, an Italian one, JobPricing, which has recently published a report in collaboration with Spring Professional and IDEM – Mind The Gap, and a global one, the World Economic Forum (WEF), with the usual Global Gender Gap Report: this is the state of the art in 2020 in Italy.
Few female executives with lower salaries
Women are a minority among managers and middle managers, especially in the private sector. A paradox, considering that the higher-paying managerial career is associated with a higher level of education and that women are more educated and with better grades in Italy.
To give the pulse of the situation, however, is the clear wage inequality which – for the same role and hours performed – discriminates against female workers in Italy. JobPricing has collected the mandatory reports on the remuneration provided by the companies for the year 2020. Taking an average, it is as if a woman started work on February 7 and received almost a month and a half less than a man.
Aren’t science, math and technology for women?
Graduates are more concentrated in the humanities, in particular the teaching, languages and psychology courses see more than 80% of women enrolled. Equal attendance, on the other hand, in agriculture and veterinary studies, while studies in medicine, architecture and economics and statistics are approaching a balance.
The STEM disciplines (from the English Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) remain the prerogative of men (present between 60% and 80%) yet, despite being in the minority, women get higher grades than men.
In summary: in relation to the population, women are more educated than men at all levels, moreover, with the same educational courses, they obtain higher marks not only at the average level but in almost all subject areas, with the exception of the literary, with -0.6 points compared to men. This means that in an increasingly digitalized world, which requires more and more IT and STEM figures, women tend to exclude themselves despite the fact that in these areas they are better, and “are satisfied” with the humanistic paths, where, contrary to false stereotypes, in some disciplines men are better.
Mothers, graduates over 55 and non-graduates are the most discriminated categories
In 2020, female employment stood at 49%, about 17 points less than men’s. Among the employed, the part-time rate is around 34% for women while for men it stops at 9%. If we break down the data, we see how employment among non-graduates is higher among men while that among graduates is higher among women, numerically already educated and with average grades higher than men.
The most affected by the labor market, JobPricing notes, are non-graduates, graduates over 55 and working mothers. Among the factors there is very often a lower wage offer than the so-called “reserve wage“, that is, the level of wages below which the individual does not consider it convenient to work. This choice, behind which there is often the burden of having to personally take care of the children and elderly family members. Italy is the 5th among the OECD countries for the gap of time dedicated to unpaid care: women spend an average of 5 hours a day in care jobs while men do not reach 2.5.
Labor is the litmus test for all disparities
Starting from the assumption that gender equality is the result of the equality achieved in different dimensions of human life (education, health, participation and economic opportunities and political participation), JobPricing has put pen to paper the data provided by the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE). Almost all Italian indices are clearly below global standards.
Thanks to JobPricing for the graphs
It is no coincidence that the WEF has calculated that Italy, despite being part of the EU countries, the most virtuous in the world in terms of gender equality, is among the worst of the EU and ranks below the EU 27 (without UK) and EU 28.
The EU curries Italy for the data provided on gender inequality
The data are negative not only in relation to national but also global estimates. According to the World Economic Forum (WEF), it is mainly the wage inequality between man and woman in the same or similar jobs: 53.3% in Italy against 62.8% in the world.
This year the Draghi government approved a five-year National Strategy. An action made necessary after the European Committee for Social Rights (Ecsr) had denounced Italy not so much for the real work discrimination against women but for the “data that is not transparent, unreliable and in open violation of Article 4, section 3, and of Article 20, paragraph c, of the European Social Charter “provided by our country. Basically, everything needs to be redone.