No release date from carbone nor a concrete commitment to remain below the 1.5 ° C threshold warm up overall. On the key points, the G20 in Naples does not reach theagreement and, in any case, despite the night marathon negotiations, little progress is made on the rest of the document, at least compared to prime drafts. There is a hard core of five G20 countries (including China, India e Russia) which does not go beyond the Paris Agreements and, therefore, that commitment to maintain the temperature of the planet within 2 degrees of pre-industrial levels. And those countries would never have signed an agreement that included a commitment to to remain, on the other hand, below 1.5 ° (as indicated by the Intergovernmental group on climate change) and to eliminate coal from energy production by 2025. “There is a misalignment on acceleration “explained the Minister of Energy Transition, Roberto Cingolani “More difficult for the largest countries” among those that pollute the most. Ergo: despite the USA, the EU, Big Brittany, Japan, Canada and a dozen other countries wanted to reach COP 26 with a document more ambitious, the Communiqué your Climate and Energy, that of the second and last day of the G20 in Naples, contains 58 of the 60 paragraphs written in black and white. On the two most divisive, but which would have given the sense ofurgency there was nothing to be done. One was not enough negotiation complex duration 2 nights and 2 days in which, it must be said, the Italian presidency she spent a lot of money. To bring home the signature of all the G20 countries, those two paragraphs Heads of state and heads of state were sent back to the G20 government to be held in October, in Rome. “At a level of decision higher policy “explained the Minister of Energy Transition, Roberto Cingolani. But the rift remains and it is increasingly likely that this will lead to Cop 26 of Glasgow.
THE MINISTER’S WORDS – In this climate, the G20 ends Naples, which began with the delegates “doing the condolences to colleagues in the countries affected by the floods – the minister recalled at a press conference – because in Europe no one had ever seen such a thing ”. The minister spoke, however, of an “important” result because “for the first time in a G20 a agreement unanimous on so many topics, bringing together the themes of climate and energy ”underlining“ the connection ”. Could we have achieved more? Surely. Perhaps it was a predictable result. And not just looking at frenetic negotiations of the last days. Cingolani also wanted to emphasize that on many issues that fall within the paragraphs of the agreement “until a few months ago, the discussion was really closed”.
DIVERGING POSITIONS ON CLIMATE – On the other hand, there is certainly no mention of two paragraphs any, but of crucial commitments and targets for the transition in the twenty countries that represent 80% of World GDP and produce over 85% of greenhouse gas emissions. “We will do everything we can to stick to 1.5 ° (increase in temperature compared to pre industrial levels, ed) “he wrote on Twitter the president of the EU Commission, Ursula Von der Leyen, on the sidelines of the G7 in Cornwall. Thus Cingolani on the first day of the G20: “We must be extremely convinced, we all have to keep the temperature rise below 1.5 ° C for the middle of the century, not 2 or 2.5 because that too makes a difference enormous from the point of view of climate change. There is a discussion on this in these hours ”. And so it was throughout the G20, in one discussion very active aimed at reconciling oil-based economies and economies “that will reverse the curve yes, but by 2060 (read China) “Explained Cingolani, recalling that” everything must be played in this one decade“, But that” there are countries that have problems with target, like the Arab countries, partly China, the Russia and emerging countries “. On the subject, a group of environmental NGOs from various European countries in the morning published an open letter to the G20 countries asking for “a post-pandemic package that faces the climate emergency head on ”to maintain the warm up global “below the safety threshold of 1.5 ° C”. Otherwise “the battle for the climate justice it will continue – they announced – with all the tools available, including legal ones ”. Among the signatories are A Sud, Fridays For Future, Peacelink, Doomsday Campaign, Client Earth, who in fact recalled how sixteen of the G20 members have faced, or are currently facing, cause legali as a result of their inadequate climatic action. Among them Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germanic, Indian, Indonesian, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, South Africa, UK, United States and European Union. And also Italy.
THE SERRATA NEGOTIATION – The summit immediately registered a profound division between Usa, Europe, Canada on the one hand, China, Russia, emerging economies and countries petroleum on the other. The knots are well known. China e India, in full growth, do not want to give up sources fossils, while Russia ed Saudi Arabia they base their economies on hydrocarbons. In fact, already after the meeting between Minister Cingolani and the US special envoy on climate, John Kerry and a brief dialogue between the two, in the late morning the difficulty of carrying out the negotiations on these points was revealed. To try to to unlock the situation the minister decided to start, after the lunch break, a plenary with ministers, for face-to-face negotiations. Delegates and ministers thus continued the negotiations together, with some delegations, such as that of the China, connected remotely. However, the minister wanted to meet those of the most ‘reticent‘to clarify all doubts on the hot topics, trying to unlock the situation, with the support of John Kerry. But it was not possible to go further. In the end on the others 58 paragraphs the situation was unlocked after China gave the green light to text common, also taking with him theIndia, from which the toughest opposition came on the second day of the summit.
THE AGREEMENT SIGNED – The document reaffirms the commitments of theParis Agreement as the binding beacon that it will have to lead up to Glasgow, where the Cop 26. The common goal is to keep the temperature well below 2 ° and to continue efforts to limit it to 1.5 ° above pre-industrial levels. The G20 countries agree to increase help to developing countries so that no one is left behind. The role of the 100 billion dollar financial commitment, already envisaged by the Paris Agreement, remains central, with the commitment to increase contributions every year until 2025. And a role, for the increase of these funds, is requested in particular from financial institutions for development and multilateral banks. All countries are active in the total energy transition, using the 2 billion dollars of energy resources Climate Investment Funds (CIFs). The great potential of the renewable offshore, ocean energy and the possibility of implementing this type of technology. The need to continue investing in technologies is recognized renewable, along with the reduction in the use of the methane “And to proceed quickly towards the reduction of the energy poverty“. Russia and China have also pledged to phase out the production of energy from coal without stopping.
FINANCIAL FLOWS, INNOVATION, RESEARCH AND SMART CITY – Central importance is given “to orient financial efforts and economic of the G20 countries towards the goals of the Paris Agreement, taking into account the efforts to eradicate the poverty, towards a just and inclusive transition ”. While recognizing the need to continue to prioritize efforts to address the Covid-19, the G20 countries undertake “to allocate a ambitious quota funds for national recovery plans e resilience in favor of mitigation and adaptation to climate change “. Other paragraphs concern, in detail, innovation and research and development, but also the smart city. In the field of mobility, the urgent need to promote a mobility sustainable and convenient “including all related infrastructures, taking into account the analysis of the entire life cycle to achieve the long-term goal ofParis Agreement”.